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A limited or more extensive mastoidectomy may be completed, depending on the length of the mastoid segment of the facial nerve to be exposed and the extent to which the bone on the lateral aspect of the jugular bulb must be removed. It is attached lateral to pharyngeal tubercle along superior clival line. Access to clivus, foreman magnum, occipital cervical joint, odontoid, and atlantoaxial joint was studied anteriorly with an endoscope. Anterior approach to ventral CVJ and brainstem is a direct approach without traversing critical neurovascular structures. Muscles of suboccipital triangles are removed to expose squama of occipital bone, lamina of atlas, and transverse process of atlas with vertical and horizontal segment of VA from axis to its dural entrance [ Figure 7b ].

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Endoscopic reconstruction of the cranial base using a pedicled nasoseptal flap. CVJ can be accessed through three corridors, namely, anterior, posterior, and lateral. Pharyngeal tubercle can be seen here. Styloid processes can be seen directed medially and anteriorly.

This corridor was studied in three stages: Acta Neurochir Wien ; The stylomastoid foramen is situated lateral to the jugular foramen. This anatomical knowledge and dissection in cadaver lab will assist future neurosurgeons in developing combined approaches and facilitating safe surgery in this difficult to access region of human body. Removing middle turbinate from one side and lateralizing on the other side nmae create this.


Lateral to internal carotid artery, mandibular branch of V cranial nerve is visible. The superior nuchal line radiates laterally from the protuberance.

Occipitocervical joint and C1 C2 joints are exposed. CVJ can be affected by congenital, developmental, degenerative, traumatic, and neoplastic pathologies. XII sukhxeep can be seen extending from brainstem through hypoglossal canal. The namee of taking over the airline was discussed internally but was not pursued for lack of consensus.

Endoscopic endonasal approach to the ventral cranio-cervical junction: A stepwise dissection was done from anterior, posterior, and lateral sides with reference to bony and muscular landmarks. Anterior, posterior, and lateral.

Craniovertebral junction 360°: A combined microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study

YouTube Music kicks off on a high note in India, garners 3 mn downloads in less than a week 9 Apr, After coming out, it joins other cranial nerves in relation to internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein. This gives a panoramic view of cerebellum, cervicomedullary junction, and cervical cord from dorsal aspect [ Figure 5 ]. With this exposure, retrosigmoid craniectomy was done without mobilizing VA. Intradural dissection of craniovertebral junction and jugular foramen.


Rootlets of XII nerve can be seen arising in relation to vertebral artery. In drilling the upper posterior portion of the condyle, the posterior condylar vein may be a source of bleeding, which could be mistaken for bleeding from naem venous plexus in the hypoglossal canal.


Vodafone Business Services Digilogue – Your guide to digitally transforming your business. 3f cadaveric specimens were prepared for dissection at the neuroanatomical laboratory of the Neurosurgical Department at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. After this, dura is opened over cerebellum and cervical spine.

To get a wide view of all the deep structures, large skin flap was removed extending from both sides of the neck up to the vertex [ Figure 4a ]. Jugular foramen is opened and venous injection is removed showing IX nerve passing superiorly in a separate subcanal.

Lesions extending below C2 vertebra are difficult to access by this approach. The floor of triangle is formed by the posterior 3f and the posterior arch of the atlas [ Figure 4d ].

Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric heads injected with color silicon were used for this study. Tech companies know what you are doing right now. V nerve has more lateral origin and course.